Macrozoobenthos as an Indicator of Environmental Pollution

food chain indicationsTerritorial waters is a medium that is susceptible to contamination. Various types of pollutants from sources both residential, industrial, natural phenomena, and others are entering the water body. After accumulating the direct or indirect pollutants will affect the water quality.

For those who like diving definitely want to get a beautiful dive spot. The beauty of the underwater environment will not be found in the polluted water territorial. It’s good to learn about bio-indicators of pollution that can be used as reference waters. One way to learn about the macrozoobenthos.

Zoobenthos are animals that some or all of their life cycle in the bottom waters, either sessile, crawling and digging holes. Macrozoobenthos organisms included are : Crustacea, isopoda, decapoda, oligochaeta, molluscs, nematodes and annelids. Benthos classification according to size :
1. Macrobenthos are benthos that have a size greater than 1 mm (0:04 inches), for example worms, pelecypod, sponges, anthozoa, ascidians, echinoderms, and crustaceans.
2. Mediobenthos are benthos that have a size between 0.1 – 1 mm, sort of polychaete, palaecypoda, copepods, ostracoda, cumaceans, nematodes, turbellarian, and foraminifera.
3. Microbenthos are benthos have a size smaller than 0.1 mm, for example, bacterial, diatoms, ciliate, amoebae, and flagellates.

Benthic animals are relatively sedentary life, so it’s good to use as a guide the quality of the environment, because it is always in contact with the waste that goes into their habitat. The animal groups can better reflect the change in the environmental factors from time to time due to continuous benthic animals are in the water quality changes.
bioindicators
The existence of benthic animals in a body of water, is strongly influenced by various environmental factors, both biotic and abiotic. Biotic factors that influence them is a manufacturer, which is one source of food for benthic animals and species interactions and patterns of life cycle of each species in the community. The abiotic factors are the physical – chemical water include : temperature, flow, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical (COD) and nitrogen (N), water depth, and the base substrate.

Macrozoobenthos can be tolerant and sensitive to environmental changes. Organisms that have a wide tolerance range will have a widespread distribution as well. Conversely a narrow tolerance range of organisms (sensitive) then spread too narrow. Macrozoobenthos who have a higher tolerance then the survival rate will be higher. The level of pollution of the waters can be seen with the identification of macrozoobenthos were found in the region.

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Scuba Diving, Among Danger and Pleasure

scuba divingScuba diving is one of the soothing water sports, its result from the development of freestyle diving. This activity is also intended as a recreational activity that is very enjoyable. There’s little difference between snorkeling and scuba diving. Snorkeling use breathing apparatus that is simpler, which is called a snorkel. Therefore snorkel only done on the water surface or in shallow waters only.

Scuba diving use a more complex of diving equipment, such as oxygen tanks, regulators, depth indicator, fins, specific wetsuit, gloves, and others. With the help of these instruments divers can last very long in the water. For some people, scuba diving into a profession that fun, and making enough money.

Scuba Diving Not as Difficult as Imagined.

To dive is not as difficult as imagined, only two basic skills required for it. The first of course swimming skills, certainly wouldn’t be funny to be immersed with oxygen tank in the back, or can dive but could not rise to the surface. The second necessary skills to breathe, remember to breathe well through the mouth because the regulator is in the mouth rather than the nose haha .. Try to breathe regularly and remain calm, it can help conserve supplies of oxygen.

underwater world
Scuba Diving Offer Enjoyment.

For a diver, there is no place other than the full relaxation of the underwater environment. Calmness and coolness to soothe the mind and relax the muscles. Only if you dive in a location with a minimum strength of underwater currents. If diving in locations with strong enough underwater currents, then it takes extra effort to maintain the position, wouldn’t be able to relax that ways..

Scuba diving can be found with stunning views of the underwater life. With good water clarity will provide maximum visibility. There is nothing more amazing apart from seeing with your own eyes, underwater biodiversity is amazing. An assortment of coral reef surrounded by various forms of living creatures under the sea. You can try to the Raja Ampat archipelago spot in Indonesia, reportedly 80% of the total species of coral are there, the water clarity is also nice.
diving gear
Scuba Diving Also Saving Potential Dangers.

Scuba diving is an activity that is fun, that everyone knows. Another thing to note is that this carries the risk of malicious activity that could cause serious harm, even cause death.

The beauty of panoramic underwater often complacent the divers, forget them about how long they been in the water, or forgetting about how deep they go. When divers dive too long and too deep would be at risk of nitrogen poisoning.

Or it could be because of a rush to make a diver rises to the surface too quickly, resulting in decompression. Mildest effect will cause disorientation to divers, the worst effects can cause death due to rupture of blood vessels or damage of other organs.

Scuba diving gives more satisfaction, but also have a risk that is not light. One thing to remember, is usually a good diving spot far away from the hospital, so divers should be more careful and be vigilant.

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Water is Fun, No Doubt About It

funGive a big bucket of water on the children, then they will quickly find a way to have fun with it. Almost all children in the world love to play with water. Mix it with soap to make bubbles, splashing water, load it into a water gun’s chamber, or just soak in it.

Water is not only used for serious matters such as agriculture and food production, but water will also be a means of refreshing entertainment. There are many fun things you can do. We can go to the waterparks, not just a clean pool, there can be found a wide variety of games.
fun water
Not only the kids who have fun with the water, adults are also having fun with water. How to adults having fun with water a little differently. The majority of young people dragged the surfboard to the beach, pedaling splitting ocean waves, then riding the waves to shore. Others prefer to hoist the sail panel, or wind surfing, jet ski, banana boat, and many others, you named it..

People not only can have fun in the sea, rivers and lakes can also be very enjoyable. Gather some friends, bring your inflatable boat into the river with enough challenging cascades and sail. Hey.. who says unpleasant rafting. Perhaps considered too expensive rubber boat, do not worry, we still can have fun exploring the river by using the inner tube, and it is also quite fun.

If there is enough money, we could have fun with water skiing or jet ski on the lake. It is better if accompanied by people who are experienced in this regard, because these activities can be dangerous to you or those around you.
cliff jumping
Or you can try this one activity, Climb riverbank then plunged into the river. Previous first make sure the water depth, and also make sure there is not anything in the water, which can be dangerous when you fall in it.

Most people prefer quieter activities to have fun with water. They prefer to put bait on the hook, throw it away to the middle of the lake, and sat quietly in silence. Do not underestimate this fishing activity, a lot of outstanding ideas that appear suddenly while fishing.
wind surfing
Water is fun, no doubt to it. One thing to remember, the water was fun only if we can maintain its sustainability. It is not fun if you have to surf with garbage. Your body may get itching when swimming in contaminated water. Not fun if you have to jump off a cliff into a river full of rubbish.

And it would be very tragic when every time you pull the hook, no fish were caught there, but rubbish. So next time you have fun with water, do not forget the importance of conserving water.

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Farming to Survive

farmingFarming is important

Currently you’re probably enjoying the food served in front of you, while in another hemisphere, someone is hungry grimaced. Ha, something that is not comfortable to read or hear isn’t it, especially at meal times. Well, talk about the food of course closely related to agriculture.

Every human life would require food. Back briefly to prehistoric times, people at that time to meet the needs of food by hunting or gathering fruit. Unfortunately, over time the amount of food provided by nature do not always meet the need. Then the human began to think to produce food, they begin to know how to raise livestock and farming.

Changes in farming systems

Humans continue to innovate to find the best ways to produce food. Many traditional farming systems using natural materials, and is also very dependent on the geographical location and season. It is a little more limiting agricultural products that can be produced.

In the early 20th century chemical fertilizers were introduced to the general public, the use of chemical fertilizers can shorten the time needed in the farming process, and cheaper. It can also significantly increase agricultural output. Comparing with traditional farming systems that process takes longer, more complicated and more expensive.
farming
People prefer to use chemical fertilizers because it is cheaper and more produce. Besides by using chemical fertilizers they no longer need to deal with smelly and dirty traditional fertilizers. A mindset that should be straightened out by now.

Environmental pollution

‘s Been quite human aware of the problems that caused by the use of chemical fertilizers, but it is as if ignored for the sake of a handful of people. Chemical fertilizers work by manipulating the soil by adding nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. The use of chemical fertilizers will continually contaminate the soil, making it lose fertility, so that the crops will depend entirely on chemical fertilizer.

Most of the residues of chemical fertilizers will be borne by farming irrigation systems, and pollute the environment along the water flow to the sea. In high levels, this pollution will damage the quality of the water and bring death to life in water. A real threat to the fisheries sector and the threat to the survival of living beings in general.

Use the ways of good farming
sustainable farming
Sustainable farming system is one viable method to be applied. This method guarantees a sustainable soil fertility, this is not something new because it has been practiced for thousands of years. This method focuses on organic farming methods, with seriousness and relentless innovation it will get farming products that do not disappoint.

Sustainable farming systems or organic farming is not only environmentally friendly, but also will improve the quality of human life in order to live more healthy. In addition to processing the soil is good and right, good crops can be obtained by breeding plant seeds.

It takes time to seeds breeding research, but it is worth doing for the sake of better farming system. That means that for the sake of a better life as well.

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Fisheries in Frames

fisheriesFisheries covers a wide range of activities. For some people, nothing is more fun activities than walking down to the lake or river, put bait on the hook, threw it far into the water, then wait for a sensational strike of water predators (crocodiles certainly not something to be expected here).

Fishing activity looks like a reasonable and simple to do, however the actual fishing is one of the world’s fisheries activities, which if examined in more detail, then this is quite a complex activity that has implications for biology, economics, and even politics.

Fisheries in general are all sorts of human activities related to the utilization and management of marine living resources. This could refer to man-made facility for fish farming or can also refer to a geographical location. Fisheries can legally be defined as the legal right to manage and utilize natural resources in the waters of a particular area with a defined time period.
fisheries
Today the fishery has become a huge industry and plays an important role in the world economy. Many major countries are building a large fishing industry, such as the United States, South Korea, China, Russia, and of course Japanese the land of sushi. These countries are not only sufficient stock in their country, but also supplies stock to other countries in need.

Growth and development of the fishing industry is very closely related to the health of aquatic ecosystems, and of course the quality of the water. The development of the fishing industry so rapidly, should be coupled with the implementation of measures friendly to nature, if not please say goodbye to fisheries and possibly to life.

In some regions or countries, the people make fishing as a major source of food and a major source of their income. This field is very promising, the industry generates billions of dollars each year. This led to large-scale fishing, as a consequence will reduce the amount of fish populations. Some reached very alarming levels, for example, the population of whales and sharks are currently on the verge of extinction.
fisheries
Rightly made ​​of offshore fishing regulations are strict and firm, as part of a conservation program. For the fish farming industry will certainly not lead to a decrease in the number of fish population problem, does not mean that this sector does not need regulation, just needed different regulations adjusted to the circumstances and needs.

So, the fisheries sector is one important aspect of human life. This sector has the potential to cause damage to aquatic ecosystems when not coupled with environmental conservation measures. It is appropriate that countries with a giant fishing industry became a pioneer in water conservation.

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Aquatic Ecosystems

aquatic ecosystemsTalking about aquatic ecosystems, it means that the overall water ecosystems, whether on land, such as rivers, lakes, marshes, and of course the ocean. Trying to understand how they are interrelated to each other, understand each role.

It is important to understand about how the ecosystem work, in order to develop knowledge about how good ecosystem management, gave an overview to make policy, to then be able to take the most appropriate action to protect the aquatic ecosystems.

The water supply is closely related to the life aquatic ecosystems and ecosystem sustainability in a broader sense. Nature has a system and a unique and powerful mechanism to perform its function as a giant water filter and as a means of re-charger reserves of freshwater resources that are necessary for life.

Water stored in the soil in addition to functioning as a backup source of fresh water, also has an important role in maintaining the shape and construction of the land, and to prevent, reduce, or slow the occurrence of abrasion. Excessive exploitation of ground water will trigger the seep of sea water, far into the inland region, and accelerate the decline in soil surface.

Aquatic ecosystems are composed of various components that are inside, such as rocks, plants, animals, micro-organisms, etc.. The existence of living creatures in aquatic ecosystems can be used as a measure of the damage. This is something that really makes sense, when an ecosystem contaminated by pollutants then it will reduce the quality of life of living things in it.
aquatic ecosystems
From a few decades ago, the number and diversity of pollutants has increased significantly. These pollutants not only micro-organisms such as parasites, but also heavy metals and synthetic chemicals.

The most dangerous pollutants usually come from plant waste are thrown away without a proper sewage treatment system. Next came the threat of pollutants from transportation and waste from households. In large quantities, the resulting pollutant transport system and household no less dangerous than sewage plant. It is certain that ecosystem damage will occur very alarming.

Ecosystems like a chain of life that are strongly interlinked to form an unbroken perfect circle. And aquatic ecosystems is one part of the chain.

Damage to aquatic ecosystems can be described as the breaking chain of life, and it means a threat to the survival of all living creatures that exist in this world.

It will be recalled that the water is a very important element for the survival of life. When we preserve the aquatic ecosystems, then that means that maintained the continuity of life.

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Water Conservation

water conservationWater conservation, this is something that should be done from now on and also the easiest step because it does not require sophisticated technology remarkable. It is very urgent to do given the great need of water for life.

Keep in mind that the supply of fresh water is not more than 2 % of the total water on earth. The remaining 97 % is salt water found in oceans and seas.

From the estimated 3% of the amount of fresh water, only 1 % is available for drinking water, while 2 % are in frozen form. While the human body, about 70 % -80 % is a liquid. Without food, a person can survive about a month, but without water a person can survive only about 5 to 7 days.

What has been presented above are some of the reasons why water conservation becomes an urgent need. Water conservation is beneficial decrease in all forms of water use. Not just close the faucet or shower meetings once a week ( we can be sure that your body becomes itchy so ).

Water conservation has a very broad scope and applied in all areas. It also means changing the mindset of people about how to use water efficiently. Provide new directions in business, where water conservation becomes part of the basis for planning a business or company. And also leads to efficient water use practices, as well as the development of a useful innovation.

Water efficiency is one of the major issues in the conservation of water, which is an effort to use as little water as possible in meeting the needs of the functions, tasks, processes, and the outcomes that need to be achieved.

Water is also an important part in economic productivity. For the water conservation should be included in the master plan, starting from the beginning of the production process until the sewage treatment process. And is also necessary for the development and continuous innovation to obtain water efficiency and environmental sustainability.
water conservation
Water conservation should start now because this is a long-term solution to the crisis needs of water for life. To keep in mind the basic principles of the application of water conservation is to start from yourself, from now on, and do it consistently and simultaneously.

Humans remains to breed, do not be selfish, think also the fate of future generations. Water conservation will be one of the very valuable legacy for future generations to come.

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