Macrozoobenthos as an Indicator of Environmental Pollution

food chain indicationsTerritorial waters is a medium that is susceptible to contamination. Various types of pollutants from sources both residential, industrial, natural phenomena, and others are entering the water body. After accumulating the direct or indirect pollutants will affect the water quality.

For those who like diving definitely want to get a beautiful dive spot. The beauty of the underwater environment will not be found in the polluted water territorial. It’s good to learn about bio-indicators of pollution that can be used as reference waters. One way to learn about the macrozoobenthos.

Zoobenthos are animals that some or all of their life cycle in the bottom waters, either sessile, crawling and digging holes. Macrozoobenthos organisms included are : Crustacea, isopoda, decapoda, oligochaeta, molluscs, nematodes and annelids. Benthos classification according to size :
1. Macrobenthos are benthos that have a size greater than 1 mm (0:04 inches), for example worms, pelecypod, sponges, anthozoa, ascidians, echinoderms, and crustaceans.
2. Mediobenthos are benthos that have a size between 0.1 – 1 mm, sort of polychaete, palaecypoda, copepods, ostracoda, cumaceans, nematodes, turbellarian, and foraminifera.
3. Microbenthos are benthos have a size smaller than 0.1 mm, for example, bacterial, diatoms, ciliate, amoebae, and flagellates.

Benthic animals are relatively sedentary life, so it’s good to use as a guide the quality of the environment, because it is always in contact with the waste that goes into their habitat. The animal groups can better reflect the change in the environmental factors from time to time due to continuous benthic animals are in the water quality changes.
bioindicators
The existence of benthic animals in a body of water, is strongly influenced by various environmental factors, both biotic and abiotic. Biotic factors that influence them is a manufacturer, which is one source of food for benthic animals and species interactions and patterns of life cycle of each species in the community. The abiotic factors are the physical – chemical water include : temperature, flow, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical (COD) and nitrogen (N), water depth, and the base substrate.

Macrozoobenthos can be tolerant and sensitive to environmental changes. Organisms that have a wide tolerance range will have a widespread distribution as well. Conversely a narrow tolerance range of organisms (sensitive) then spread too narrow. Macrozoobenthos who have a higher tolerance then the survival rate will be higher. The level of pollution of the waters can be seen with the identification of macrozoobenthos were found in the region.

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Scuba Diving, Among Danger and Pleasure

scuba divingScuba diving is one of the soothing water sports, its result from the development of freestyle diving. This activity is also intended as a recreational activity that is very enjoyable. There’s little difference between snorkeling and scuba diving. Snorkeling use breathing apparatus that is simpler, which is called a snorkel. Therefore snorkel only done on the water surface or in shallow waters only.

Scuba diving use a more complex of diving equipment, such as oxygen tanks, regulators, depth indicator, fins, specific wetsuit, gloves, and others. With the help of these instruments divers can last very long in the water. For some people, scuba diving into a profession that fun, and making enough money.

Scuba Diving Not as Difficult as Imagined.

To dive is not as difficult as imagined, only two basic skills required for it. The first of course swimming skills, certainly wouldn’t be funny to be immersed with oxygen tank in the back, or can dive but could not rise to the surface. The second necessary skills to breathe, remember to breathe well through the mouth because the regulator is in the mouth rather than the nose haha .. Try to breathe regularly and remain calm, it can help conserve supplies of oxygen.

underwater world
Scuba Diving Offer Enjoyment.

For a diver, there is no place other than the full relaxation of the underwater environment. Calmness and coolness to soothe the mind and relax the muscles. Only if you dive in a location with a minimum strength of underwater currents. If diving in locations with strong enough underwater currents, then it takes extra effort to maintain the position, wouldn’t be able to relax that ways..

Scuba diving can be found with stunning views of the underwater life. With good water clarity will provide maximum visibility. There is nothing more amazing apart from seeing with your own eyes, underwater biodiversity is amazing. An assortment of coral reef surrounded by various forms of living creatures under the sea. You can try to the Raja Ampat archipelago spot in Indonesia, reportedly 80% of the total species of coral are there, the water clarity is also nice.
diving gear
Scuba Diving Also Saving Potential Dangers.

Scuba diving is an activity that is fun, that everyone knows. Another thing to note is that this carries the risk of malicious activity that could cause serious harm, even cause death.

The beauty of panoramic underwater often complacent the divers, forget them about how long they been in the water, or forgetting about how deep they go. When divers dive too long and too deep would be at risk of nitrogen poisoning.

Or it could be because of a rush to make a diver rises to the surface too quickly, resulting in decompression. Mildest effect will cause disorientation to divers, the worst effects can cause death due to rupture of blood vessels or damage of other organs.

Scuba diving gives more satisfaction, but also have a risk that is not light. One thing to remember, is usually a good diving spot far away from the hospital, so divers should be more careful and be vigilant.

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