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Macrozoobenthos as an Indicator of Environmental Pollution

food chain indicationsTerritorial waters is a medium that is susceptible to contamination. Various types of pollutants from sources both residential, industrial, natural phenomena, and others are entering the water body. After accumulating the direct or indirect pollutants will affect the water quality.

For those who like diving definitely want to get a beautiful dive spot. The beauty of the underwater environment will not be found in the polluted water territorial. It’s good to learn about bio-indicators of pollution that can be used as reference waters. One way to learn about the macrozoobenthos.

Zoobenthos are animals that some or all of their life cycle in the bottom waters, either sessile, crawling and digging holes. Macrozoobenthos organisms included are : Crustacea, isopoda, decapoda, oligochaeta, molluscs, nematodes and annelids. Benthos classification according to size :
1. Macrobenthos are benthos that have a size greater than 1 mm (0:04 inches), for example worms, pelecypod, sponges, anthozoa, ascidians, echinoderms, and crustaceans.
2. Mediobenthos are benthos that have a size between 0.1 – 1 mm, sort of polychaete, palaecypoda, copepods, ostracoda, cumaceans, nematodes, turbellarian, and foraminifera.
3. Microbenthos are benthos have a size smaller than 0.1 mm, for example, bacterial, diatoms, ciliate, amoebae, and flagellates.

Benthic animals are relatively sedentary life, so it’s good to use as a guide the quality of the environment, because it is always in contact with the waste that goes into their habitat. The animal groups can better reflect the change in the environmental factors from time to time due to continuous benthic animals are in the water quality changes.
bioindicators
The existence of benthic animals in a body of water, is strongly influenced by various environmental factors, both biotic and abiotic. Biotic factors that influence them is a manufacturer, which is one source of food for benthic animals and species interactions and patterns of life cycle of each species in the community. The abiotic factors are the physical – chemical water include : temperature, flow, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical (COD) and nitrogen (N), water depth, and the base substrate.

Macrozoobenthos can be tolerant and sensitive to environmental changes. Organisms that have a wide tolerance range will have a widespread distribution as well. Conversely a narrow tolerance range of organisms (sensitive) then spread too narrow. Macrozoobenthos who have a higher tolerance then the survival rate will be higher. The level of pollution of the waters can be seen with the identification of macrozoobenthos were found in the region.

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